If some other source is not cited, all lexical entries are taken from Liddell-Scott Greek Lexicon.

Names of the 12 Signs

Greek Names of Signs

Names of the 7 Stars

Greek names of Planets


αἴσθησις (aisthēsis) = perception from the senses (hearing, seeing, smelling); perception from the intellect; ability to perceive [discernment]; to understand; to apprehend by senses; take notice of; cognitions (noun sg nom fem 3rd decl.)
αἴσθομαι (aisthomai) = I perceive, apprehend, notice (verb).

Example in Vettius Valens Ch. 1 speaking of the nature of Sun: ψυχικῆς αἰσθήσεως ὄργανον (psuchikēs aisthēseōs ogranon, organ of perception of the soul). ‘Aisthēseos’ is genitive singular form of  noun ‘aisthēsis’.

ἀκτῑνοβολέω (aktinoboleō) = emit rays, aspect from the left.
Astrological translation: ‘hurling with a way’. Schmidt: ‘striking with a ray’.
Hurling a ray backwards in the zodiacal order. Planet in Aries hurls a ray to a planet in Capricorn, or to use Schmidt’s convention, planet in Aries is striking with a ray a planet positioned in Capricorn. It is not yet clear whether the configuration made by the two planet should be by degree or the whole-sign aspects are also taken in account.

ἀναβῐβάζω (anabibazdō) =makes to go up.
Astrologically: the ascendning node (north node), ἀναβιβάζων σύνδεσμος (ho anabibazdō sundesmos), but in Valens it is often times used as anabibazdon translated as ‘ascending [node] with ‘node’ in parenthesis.

ἀπόστροφος (apostrophos) =  turned away from, averted.
Astrologically: aversion, lack of aspect, the sign on the both sides next to the one examined and those opposite these two.

ἀχρημάτιστος [achrēmatistos] = non-profitable, bringing no advantage. Astrologically referring to the images/signs that are not operative, or not conducive for business. According to Hermes/Timaeus, these images are all that do not aspect the ascendant + the 3rd image. So, 2nd, 3rd, 6th, 8th and 12th. According to the King Nechepsō: only the cadent signs. Schmidt’s translation of this word is ‘being at leisure’.


βίαιοθανάτος (biaiothanatos) – violent death.


γένεσις (genesis) = origin, source, beginning, generation, coming into being, becoming (noun sg f 3rd decl.)
Astrologically: natal chart, birth chart, geniture, nativity.


δεσπότης (despotēs) = master, lord, owner, the master of the house, despot, absolute ruler (noun sg masc nom). Astrologically: dominant planet, master.

δεσποτεία (despoteia) = the power of the master (noun sg fem)
Astrologically: mastership, ownership [of a place/house].

δέκτωρ (dektōr)= one who takes upon himself or on his own hand.
Astrologically: Steward, oikodektōr, stewart of the house (Schmidt).

δορῠφορία (doruphoria) = to act as a guard, body-guard, spear-bearer,
δορῠφορέω (doruphoreō) = attent as boddy-guard, to be guarded (verb).


ἐναλλᾰγή [enallagē] = interchange, variation. It is used in the treatise of Abū Ma’shar On Solar Revolutions survived in Greek [in translation from Arabic] as to represent the Revolution or what we would call today [Solar] Return. In the Latin text is called ‘Revolutio‘.

επιδυναμεως [epidunameōs] = being in power, possessing a power.

επικαιρος [epikairos] = being fit for, being in fit time. Astrologically: being in important place in the nativity [Schmidt]. According to Serapio, these important places are: a) being on a pivot, b) making an appearance, c) being upon a lot, d) being in a concourse with the Sun.

ἐπίκεντρος [epikentros] = occupying a cardinal point (adj sg nom)

ἐπικεντρόομαι [epikentroomai] = occupy a cardinal point (verb 1st sg pres ind)

επικληρος [epiklēros] = being upon a lot. Epi is prefix meaning ‘on, upon’ and klēros is a noun meaning a ‘lot’.

ἐπίφᾶσις [epiphasis] = becoming visible, making an appearance.


Ισχυοντες [ischuontes] = being strong.


κατοπτεύω [katopteuō] = spy out, observe closely, reconnoiter, explore. Astrologically this term is used as an aspect [possibly close degree aspect] that is cast toward some planet. It is used by Porphyry in his definition of Doryphory or Spear-Bearing for the planet that is spear-bearing for another. Schmidt translated this term as ‘to act as a lookout’. It is also used by Antiochus and Hephaistio for the planet that is spear-bearing or is casting a ray in the degree preceding (or following, Antiochus) the other planet.

κλῆρος (klēros) = allotment, that which is assigned by lot, piece of land, farm, estate.
Astrologically: Lot.

κλῆρος θανάτου (klēros thanatou) = Lot of Death, as found in Critodemus is taken by day and night by taking the distance from natal Moon to the 8th Place and casting that amount of distance from the ascendant. Algorithmically: (Asc + 8th Place – Moon)

κλῆρος  ἀναιρέτου (klēros anairetou) = Lot of Destroyer, as found in Critodemus is taken by day by taking the distance from the Lord of the Ascendant to the Moon and casting that amount of distance from Ascendant. Algorithmically: (Asc + Moon – Lord of Ascendant, reverse by night).

κύριος (kurios) = having power or authority over (noun sg masc nom). Astrologically: ruler.


νόος [noos], νόυς  [in Attic dialect] = mind, perception, sense, reason, intellect, the act of mind [noun sg m nom]
Valens says that Sun represents the mind and the organ of perception of the Soul.

(oikodespotēs) =  master or steward of a house  (noun sg masc).
Astrologically: ruler, ruler of a house or topical place, from ‘oiko’ house and ‘despotēs’ ruler: ruler of a house.

οἰκοδεσποτεία (oikodespoteia) = planetary predominance (noun sg fem). Astrologically: rulership.

οἰκοδεσποτέω (oikodespoteō) = to be master of a house or head of a family (verb 1st sg pres ind act).


πανσέληνος (panselēnos) = full Moon.

Προαναφέρω (proanapherō) = to rise before [a star].

προγενομένης (progenomenēs) = prenatal.

συνοικοδεσπότης (sunoikodespotēs) joint lord of a house (of a planet).
Astrologically: co-ruler.

σύνοικος (sunoikos) = dwelling in the same house with, fellow-inhabitant, associated with, tied to.
sunoiko-despotēs meaning practically ‘joined in rulership’, or joined to the ruler. The prefix ‘sun’ in Ancient Greek was often used for the notion of joining.

σημαίνω (sēmainō) = Indicate, to show by sign, to point out, give signs, to make a signal, signify, declare, to mark out (verb).
In Hellenistic astrology text, is most often translated as ‘to signify’. It is often used in the original text in 3rd person sg form ‘sēmainei’ in a sense of ‘Sun [it] signifies’.

σελήνη (Selēnē) – Moon.

σύνδεσμος (sundesmos) = that which binds together, bond of union.


ὕψωμα [hupsōma] = exaltation, elevation.


χρημᾰτίζω [chrēmatizō] = “conducive to business”. Astrologically, used by Hellenistic authors to denote the signs/images that are ‘operative’ or where planets can conduct their business. This is a denominative verb, such verbs usually denote action. It is formed by the root noun chrēma and the suffix izō (Schmidt, Definitions & Foundations).
Other forms: χρημᾰτιστικός [chrēmatistikos], χρηματιστος [chrēmatistos], χρηματιζον [chrēmatizon] – Serapio uses this form and Schmidt translated it as ‘busy about their business’. Serapio adds that only planets that are on pivots, upon lots, making an appearance or those that are trigonal to Sun are ‘busy about their business’.
According to Hermes/Timaeus, these images are: all the Pivots, 9th, 5th, and 11th. According to King Nechepsō: the pivots and the post-ascending images (succedent signs).

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